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RETURN

The RETURN clause defines the output of an nGQL query. To return multiple fields, separate them with commas.

RETURN can lead a clause or a statement:

  • A RETURN clause can work in openCypher statements in nGQL, such as MATCH or UNWIND.
  • A RETURN statement can work independently to output the result of an expression.

OpenCypher compatibility

This topic applies to the openCypher syntax in nGQL only. For native nGQL, use YIELD.

RETURN does not support the following openCypher features yet.

  • Return variables with uncommon characters, for example:

    MATCH (`non-english_characters`:player) \
    RETURN `non-english_characters`;
    
  • Set a pattern in the RETURN clause and return all elements that this pattern matches, for example:

    MATCH (v:player) \
    RETURN (v)-[e]->(v2);
    

Map order description

When RETURN returns the map data structure, the order of key-value pairs is undefined.

nebula> RETURN {age: 32, name: "Marco Belinelli"};
+------------------------------------+
| {age:32,name:"Marco Belinelli"}    |
+------------------------------------+
| {age: 32, name: "Marco Belinelli"} |
+------------------------------------+

nebula> RETURN {zage: 32, name: "Marco Belinelli"};
+-------------------------------------+
| {zage:32,name:"Marco Belinelli"}    |
+-------------------------------------+
| {name: "Marco Belinelli", zage: 32} |
+-------------------------------------+

Return vertices or edges

Use the RETURN {<vertex_name> | <edge_name>} to return vertices and edges all information.

// Return vertices
nebula> MATCH (v:player) \
        RETURN v;
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
| v                                                             |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
| ("player104" :player{age: 32, name: "Marco Belinelli"})       |
| ("player107" :player{age: 32, name: "Aron Baynes"})           |
| ("player116" :player{age: 34, name: "LeBron James"})          |
| ("player120" :player{age: 29, name: "James Harden"})          |
| ("player125" :player{age: 41, name: "Manu Ginobili"})         |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
...

// Return edges
nebula> MATCH (v:player)-[e]->() \
        RETURN e;
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| e                                                                            |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| [:follow "player104"->"player100" @0 {degree: 55}]                           |
| [:follow "player104"->"player101" @0 {degree: 50}]                           |
| [:follow "player104"->"player105" @0 {degree: 60}]                           |
| [:serve "player104"->"team200" @0 {end_year: 2009, start_year: 2007}]        |
| [:serve "player104"->"team208" @0 {end_year: 2016, start_year: 2015}]        |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
...

Return VIDs

Use the id() function to retrieve VIDs.

nebula> MATCH (v:player{name:"Tim Duncan"}) \
        RETURN id(v);
+-------------+
| id(v)       |
+-------------+
| "player100" |
+-------------+

Return Tag

Use the labels() function to return the list of tags on a vertex.

nebula> MATCH (v:player{name:"Tim Duncan"}) \
        RETURN labels(v);
+------------+
| labels(v)  |
+------------+
| ["player"] |
+------------+

To retrieve the nth element in the labels(v) list, use labels(v)[n-1]. The following example shows how to use labels(v)[0] to return the first tag in the list.

nebula> MATCH (v:player{name:"Tim Duncan"}) \
        RETURN labels(v)[0];
+--------------+
| labels(v)[0] |
+--------------+
| "player"     |
+--------------+

Return properties

To return a vertex or edge property, use the {<vertex_name>|<edge_name>}.<property> syntax.

nebula> MATCH (v:player) \
        RETURN v.player.name, v.player.age \
        LIMIT 3;
+------------------+--------------+
| v.player.name    | v.player.age |
+------------------+--------------+
| "Danny Green"    | 31           |
| "Tiago Splitter" | 34           |
| "David West"     | 38           |
+------------------+--------------+

Use the properties() function to return all properties on a vertex or an edge.

nebula> MATCH p=(v:player{name:"Tim Duncan"})-[]->(v2) \
        RETURN properties(v2);
+----------------------------------+
| properties(v2)                   |
+----------------------------------+
| {name: "Spurs"}                  |
| {age: 36, name: "Tony Parker"}   |
| {age: 41, name: "Manu Ginobili"} |
+----------------------------------+

Return edge type

Use the type() function to return the matched edge types.

nebula> MATCH p=(v:player{name:"Tim Duncan"})-[e]->() \
        RETURN DISTINCT type(e);
+----------+
| type(e)  |
+----------+
| "serve"  |
| "follow" |
+----------+

Return paths

Use RETURN <path_name> to return all the information of the matched paths.

nebula> MATCH p=(v:player{name:"Tim Duncan"})-[*3]->() \
        RETURN p;
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| p                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| <("player100" :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 95}]->("player101" :player{age: 36, name: "Tony Parker"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 90}]->("player102" :player{age: 33, name: "LaMarcus Aldridge"})-[:serve@0 {end_year: 2019, start_year: 2015}]->("team204" :team{name: "Spurs"})>         |
| <("player100" :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 95}]->("player101" :player{age: 36, name: "Tony Parker"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 90}]->("player102" :player{age: 33, name: "LaMarcus Aldridge"})-[:serve@0 {end_year: 2015, start_year: 2006}]->("team203" :team{name: "Trail Blazers"})> |
| <("player100" :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 95}]->("player101" :player{age: 36, name: "Tony Parker"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 90}]->("player102" :player{age: 33, name: "LaMarcus Aldridge"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 75}]->("player101" :player{age: 36, name: "Tony Parker"})>           |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
...

Return vertices in a path

Use the nodes() function to return all vertices in a path.

nebula> MATCH p=(v:player{name:"Tim Duncan"})-[]->(v2) \
        RETURN nodes(p);
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| nodes(p)                                                                                                            |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| [("player100" :star{} :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"}), ("player204" :team{name: "Spurs"})]                    |
| [("player100" :star{} :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"}), ("player101" :player{name: "Tony Parker", age: 36})]   |
| [("player100" :star{} :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"}), ("player125" :player{name: "Manu Ginobili", age: 41})] |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Return edges in a path

Use the relationships() function to return all edges in a path.

nebula> MATCH p=(v:player{name:"Tim Duncan"})-[]->(v2) \
        RETURN relationships(p);
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| relationships(p)                                                        |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| [[:serve "player100"->"team204" @0 {end_year: 2016, start_year: 1997}]] |
| [[:follow "player100"->"player101" @0 {degree: 95}]]                    |
| [[:follow "player100"->"player125" @0 {degree: 95}]]                    |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Return path length

Use the length() function to return the length of a path.

nebula> MATCH p=(v:player{name:"Tim Duncan"})-[*..2]->(v2) \
        RETURN p AS Paths, length(p) AS Length;
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+
| Paths                                                                                                                                                                                                                  | Length |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+
| <("player100" :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"})-[:serve@0 {end_year: 2016, start_year: 1997}]->("team204" :team{name: "Spurs"})>                                                                                   | 1      |
| <("player100" :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 95}]->("player101" :player{age: 36, name: "Tony Parker"})>                                                                                     | 1      |
| <("player100" :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 95}]->("player125" :player{age: 41, name: "Manu Ginobili"})>                                                                                   | 1      |
| <("player100" :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 95}]->("player101" :player{age: 36, name: "Tony Parker"})-[:serve@0 {end_year: 2018, start_year: 1999}]->("team204" :team{name: "Spurs"})>     | 2      |
| <("player100" :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 95}]->("player101" :player{age: 36, name: "Tony Parker"})-[:serve@0 {end_year: 2019, start_year: 2018}]->("team215" :team{name: "Hornets"})>   | 2      |
| <("player100" :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 95}]->("player101" :player{age: 36, name: "Tony Parker"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 95}]->("player100" :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"})>        | 2      |
| <("player100" :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 95}]->("player101" :player{age: 36, name: "Tony Parker"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 90}]->("player102" :player{age: 33, name: "LaMarcus Aldridge"})> | 2      |
| <("player100" :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 95}]->("player101" :player{age: 36, name: "Tony Parker"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 95}]->("player125" :player{age: 41, name: "Manu Ginobili"})>     | 2      |
| <("player100" :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 95}]->("player125" :player{age: 41, name: "Manu Ginobili"})-[:serve@0 {end_year: 2018, start_year: 2002}]->("team204" :team{name: "Spurs"})>   | 2      |
| <("player100" :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 95}]->("player125" :player{age: 41, name: "Manu Ginobili"})-[:follow@0 {degree: 90}]->("player100" :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"})>      | 2      |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+

Return all elements

To return all the elements that this pattern matches, use an asterisk (*).

nebula> MATCH (v:player{name:"Tim Duncan"}) \
        RETURN *;
+----------------------------------------------------+
| v                                                  |
+----------------------------------------------------+
| ("player100" :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"}) |
+----------------------------------------------------+

nebula> MATCH (v:player{name:"Tim Duncan"})-[e]->(v2) \
        RETURN *;
+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
| v                                                  | e                                                                     | v2                                                    |
+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
| ("player100" :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"}) | [:follow "player100"->"player101" @0 {degree: 95}]                    | ("player101" :player{age: 36, name: "Tony Parker"})   |
| ("player100" :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"}) | [:follow "player100"->"player125" @0 {degree: 95}]                    | ("player125" :player{age: 41, name: "Manu Ginobili"}) |
| ("player100" :player{age: 42, name: "Tim Duncan"}) | [:serve "player100"->"team204" @0 {end_year: 2016, start_year: 1997}] | ("team204" :team{name: "Spurs"})                      |
+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+-------------------------------------------------------+

Rename a field

Use the AS <alias> syntax to rename a field in the output.

nebula> MATCH (v:player{name:"Tim Duncan"})-[:serve]->(v2) \
        RETURN v2.team.name AS Team;
+---------+
| Team    |
+---------+
| "Spurs" |
+---------+

nebula> RETURN "Amber" AS Name;
+---------+
| Name    |
+---------+
| "Amber" |
+---------+

Return a non-existing property

If a property matched does not exist, NULL is returned.

nebula> MATCH (v:player{name:"Tim Duncan"})-[e]->(v2) \
        RETURN v2.player.name, type(e), v2.player.age;
+-----------------+----------+---------------+
| v2.player.name  | type(e)  | v2.player.age |
+-----------------+----------+---------------+
| "Manu Ginobili" | "follow" | 41            |
| __NULL__        | "serve"  | __NULL__      |
| "Tony Parker"   | "follow" | 36            |
+-----------------+----------+---------------+

Return expression results

To return the results of expressions such as literals, functions, or predicates, set them in a RETURN clause.

nebula> MATCH (v:player{name:"Tony Parker"})-->(v2:player) \
        RETURN DISTINCT v2.player.name, "Hello"+" graphs!", v2.player.age > 35;
+---------------------+----------------------+--------------------+
| v2.player.name      | ("Hello"+" graphs!") | (v2.player.age>35) |
+---------------------+----------------------+--------------------+
| "LaMarcus Aldridge" | "Hello graphs!"      | false              |
| "Tim Duncan"        | "Hello graphs!"      | true               |
| "Manu Ginobili"     | "Hello graphs!"      | true               |
+---------------------+----------------------+--------------------+

nebula> RETURN 1+1;
+-------+
| (1+1) |
+-------+
| 2     |
+-------+

nebula> RETURN 3 > 1;
+-------+
| (3>1) |
+-------+
| true  |
+-------+

nebula> RETURN 1+1, rand32(1, 5);
+-------+-------------+
| (1+1) | rand32(1,5) |
+-------+-------------+
| 2     | 1           |
+-------+-------------+

Return unique fields

Use DISTINCT to remove duplicate fields in the result set.

# Before using DISTINCT.
nebula> MATCH (v:player{name:"Tony Parker"})--(v2:player) \
        RETURN v2.player.name, v2.player.age;
+---------------------+---------------+
| v2.player.name      | v2.player.age |
+---------------------+---------------+
| "Manu Ginobili"     | 41            |
| "Boris Diaw"        | 36            |
| "Marco Belinelli"   | 32            |
| "Dejounte Murray"   | 29            |
| "Tim Duncan"        | 42            |
| "Tim Duncan"        | 42            |
| "LaMarcus Aldridge" | 33            |
| "LaMarcus Aldridge" | 33            |
+---------------------+---------------+

# After using DISTINCT.
nebula> MATCH (v:player{name:"Tony Parker"})--(v2:player) \
        RETURN DISTINCT v2.player.name, v2.player.age;
+---------------------+---------------+
| v2.player.name      | v2.player.age |
+---------------------+---------------+
| "Manu Ginobili"     | 41            |
| "Boris Diaw"        | 36            |
| "Marco Belinelli"   | 32            |
| "Dejounte Murray"   | 29            |
| "Tim Duncan"        | 42            |
| "LaMarcus Aldridge" | 33            |
+---------------------+---------------+

Last update: September 16, 2022