Skip to content

Storage Balance Usage

Nebula Graph's services are composed of three parts: graphd, storaged and metad. The balance in this document focuses on the operation of storage.

Currently, storage can be scaled horizontally by the command balance. There are two kinds of balance command, one is to move data, which is BALANCE DATA; the other one only changes the distribution of leader partition to balance load without moving data, which is BALANCE LEADER.

Balance data

Let's use an example to expand the cluster from 3 instances to 8 to show how to BALANCE DATA.

Step 1 Prerequisites

Deploy a cluster with three replicas, one graphd, one metad and three storaged. Check cluster status using command SHOW HOSTS.

Step 1.1

nebula> SHOW HOSTS

================================================================================================
| Ip            | Port  | Status | Leader count | Leader distribution | Partition distribution |
================================================================================================
| 192.168.8.210 | 34600 | online | 0            | No valid partition  | No valid partition     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 34700 | online | 0            | No valid partition  | No valid partition     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 34500 | online | 0            | No valid partition  | No valid partition     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Explanations on the returned results:

  • IP and Port are the present storage instance, the cluster starts with three storaged instances (192.168.8.210:34600, 192.168.8.210:34700, 192.168.8.210:34500) without any data.
  • Status shows the state of the present instance, currently there are two kind of states, i.e. online/offline. When a machine is out of service, metad will turn it to offline if no heart beat received for certain time threshold. The default threshold is 10 minutes and can be changed in parameter expired_threshold_sec when starting metad service.
  • Leader count shows RAFT leader number of the present process.
  • Leader distribution shows how the present leader is distributed in each graph space. No space is created for now.
  • Partition distribution shows how many partitions are served by each host.

Step 1.2

Create a graph space named test with 100 partition and 3 replicas.

nebula> CREATE SPACE test(PARTITION_NUM=100, REPLICA_FACTOR=3)

Get the new partition distribution by the command SHOW HOSTS.

nebula> SHOW HOSTS
================================================================================================
| Ip            | Port  | Status | Leader count | Leader distribution | Partition distribution |
================================================================================================
| 192.168.8.210 | 34600 | online | 0            | test: 0             | test: 100              |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 34700 | online | 52           | test: 52            | test: 100              |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 34500 | online | 48           | test: 48            | test: 100              |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Step 2 Add new hosts into the cluster

Now, add some new hosts (storaged instances) into the cluster.

Again, show the new status using command SHOW HOSTS. You can see there are already eight hosts in serving. But no partition is running on the new hosts.

nebula> SHOW HOSTS
================================================================================================
| Ip            | Port  | Status | Leader count | Leader distribution | Partition distribution |
================================================================================================
| 192.168.8.210 | 34600 | online | 0            | test: 0             | test: 100              |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 34900 | online | 0            | No valid partition  | No valid partition     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 35940 | online | 0            | No valid partition  | No valid partition     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 34920 | online | 0            | No valid partition  | No valid partition     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 44920 | online | 0            | No valid partition  | No valid partition     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 34700 | online | 52           | test: 52            | test: 100              |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 34500 | online | 48           | test: 48            | test: 100              |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 34800 | online | 0            | No valid partition  | No valid partition     |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Step 3 Data migration

Check the current balance plan ID using command BALANCE DATA if the cluster is balanced. Otherwise, a new plan ID will be generated by the command.

nebula> BALANCE DATA
==============
| ID         |
==============
| 1570761786 |
--------------

Check the progress of balance using command BALANCE DATA $id.

nebula> BALANCE DATA 1570761786
===============================================================================
| balanceId, spaceId:partId, src->dst                           | status      |
===============================================================================
| [1570761786, 1:1, 192.168.8.210:34600->192.168.8.210:44920]   | succeeded   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| [1570761786, 1:1, 192.168.8.210:34700->192.168.8.210:34920]   | succeeded   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| [1570761786, 1:1, 192.168.8.210:34500->192.168.8.210:34800]   | succeeded   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| [1570761786, 1:2, 192.168.8.210:34600->192.168.8.210:44920]   | in progress |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| [1570761786, 1:2, 192.168.8.210:34700->192.168.8.210:34920]   | in progress |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| [1570761786, 1:2, 192.168.8.210:34500->192.168.8.210:34800]   | in progress |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| [1570761786, 1:3, 192.168.8.210:34600->192.168.8.210:44920]   | succeeded   |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
...
| Total:189, Succeeded:170, Failed:0, In Progress:19, Invalid:0 | 89.947090%  |

Explanations on the returned results:

  • The first column is a specific balance task. Take 1570761786, 1:88, 192.168.8.210:34700->192.168.8.210:35940 for example

  • 1570761786 is the balance ID

  • 1:88, 1 is the spaceId, 88 is the moved partId
  • 192.168.8.210:34700->192.168.8.210:3594, moving data from 192.168.8.210:34700 to 192.168.8.210:35940

  • The second column shows the state (result) of the task, there are four states:

  • Succeeded
  • Failed
  • In progress
  • Invalid

The last row is the summary of the tasks. Some partitions are yet to be migrated.

Step 4 Migration confirmation

In most cases, data migration will take hours or even days. During the migration, Nebula Graph services are not affected. Once migration is done, the progress will show 100%. You can retry BALANCE DATA to fix a failed task. If it can't be fixed after several attempts, please contact us at GitHub.

Now, you can check partition distribution using command SHOW HOSTS when balance completed.

nebula> SHOW HOSTS
================================================================================================
| Ip            | Port  | Status | Leader count | Leader distribution | Partition distribution |
================================================================================================
| 192.168.8.210 | 34600 | online | 3            | test: 3             | test: 37               |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 34900 | online | 0            | test: 0             | test: 38               |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 35940 | online | 0            | test: 0             | test: 37               |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 34920 | online | 0            | test: 0             | test: 38               |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 44920 | online | 0            | test: 0             | test: 38               |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 34700 | online | 35           | test: 35            | test: 37               |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 34500 | online | 24           | test: 24            | test: 37               |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 34800 | online | 38           | test: 38            | test: 38               |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Now partitions and data are evenly distributed on the machines.

Balance stop

BALANCE DATA STOP command stops the running balance data plan. If there is no running balance plan, an error is thrown. If there is a running plan, the related plan ID is returned.

Since each balance plan includes several balance tasks, BALANCE DATA STOP doesn't stop the started tasks , but rather cancel the subsequent tasks. The started tasks will continue until the executions are completed.

Input BALANCE DATA $id after BALANCE DATA STOP to check the status of the stopped balance plan.

After all the tasks being executed are completed, rerun the BALANCE DATA command to restart balance.

If there are failed tasks in the stopped plan, the plan will continue. Otherwise, if all the tasks are succeed, a new balance plan is created and executed.

Batch Scale in

Nebula supports specifying hosts that need to go offline to conduct batch scale in. The syntax is BALANCE DATA REMOVE $host_list. For example, statement BALANCE DATA REMOVE 192.168.0.1:50000,192.168.0.2:50000 removes two hosts, i.e. 192.168.0.1:50000,192.168.0.2:50000, during the balance process.

If replica number cannot meet the requirement after removing (for example, the number of remaining hosts is less than the number of replicas or when one of the three replica is offline, one of the remaining two replicas is required to be removed), Nebula Graph will reject the balance request and return an error code.

Balance leader

Command BALANCE DATA only migrates partitions. But the leader distribution remains unbalanced, which means old hosts are overloaded, while the new ones are not fully used. Redistribute RAFT leader using the command BALANCE LEADER.

nebula> BALANCE LEADER

Seconds later, check the results using the command SHOW HOSTS. The RAFT leaders are distributed evenly over all the hosts in the cluster.

nebula> SHOW HOSTS
================================================================================================
| Ip            | Port  | Status | Leader count | Leader distribution | Partition distribution |
================================================================================================
| 192.168.8.210 | 34600 | online | 13           | test: 13            | test: 37               |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 34900 | online | 12           | test: 12            | test: 38               |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 35940 | online | 12           | test: 12            | test: 37               |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 34920 | online | 12           | test: 12            | test: 38               |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 44920 | online | 13           | test: 13            | test: 38               |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 34700 | online | 12           | test: 12            | test: 37               |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 34500 | online | 13           | test: 13            | test: 37               |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
| 192.168.8.210 | 34800 | online | 13           | test: 13            | test: 38               |
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------